zebra swallowtail host plant
Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida. The plants that caterpillars eat are called host plants while the plants that adult butterflies eat (actually they “drink” nectar from the flowers) are called nectar plants. Host plants are no more challenging to grow than any other plant. Edwards WH. 1999. It is one of our most beautiful swallowtails (Figures 1 and 2). 2020, Condamine et al. New York, N.Y. 486 pp. Photograph by Jerry F. Butler, University of Florida. Each species of butterflies has specific host plants … Defense mechanisms of arthropods. Giant Swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes) butterflies use the following plants as host plants: Remember: Always purchase host plants by their botanical names. Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Caterpillar joyfulbutterfly.com The caterpillars of this species are green or black with thick and light transverse stripes all over the body. Photograph by Jerry F. Butler, University of Florida. The natural history of the parasitic wasp. Zebra swallowtail. Its distinctive wing shape and long tails make it easy to identify, and its black-and-white-striped pattern is reminiscent of a zebra. milkweed plants, which are the host plants of another iconic butterﬂy, the monarch. The eggs of these butterflies initially are dull green that turn brownish orange as they mature. Life Cycle and Lifespan. Host: Paw Paw (Asimina angustifolia, A. incana, A. parviflora) Pipevine Swallowtail: Battus philenor * Host: Pipevines (Aristolochia serpentaria, A. tomentosa) Black Swallowtail: Papilio polyxenes * Host: Herbwilliam (Ptilimnium capillaceum) Eastern Tiger Swallowtail: Papilio glaucus * Paw paw and cancer: Annonaceous acetogenins from discovery to commercial products. Edition 10, volume 1. Unlike most of our other native swallowtails, zebra swallowtails are not involved in a mimicry complex. 1889. A quick refresher lesson in butterfly life cycles: Adult butterflies feed on the nectar of a variety of plants to gain the energy to search for a mate. Larvae will also feed on flowers when available (Damman and Feeny 1988) (Figure 13). 2005). West DA, Hazel WN. Once the eggs hatch the caterpillars emerge and begin to eat, and eat, and eat the leaves of the host plant until they are large enough to shed a skin. Eggs of the zebra longwing butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (Linnaeus), on maypop (purple passionflower), Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae). Middle instar larva of Protographium marcellus (Cramer). Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera, Family Papilionidae, Eisner T, Pliske TE, Ikeda M, Owen DF, Vásquez L, Pérez HP, Franclemont JG, Meinwold J. Lamas GRG, Robbins RG, Field WD. Hesperoidea - Papilionoidea. ex Chapm., pretty false pawpaw, Asimina pulchella (Small) Rehder and Dayton, and Rugel’s false pawpaw, Asimina rugelii B.L. Ohe Hedyleptan Moth: Olaa peppered looper moth : 7-spot ladybird: 10-spotted rhododendron moth: 24 … Butterfly morphology in a molecular age – does it still matter in butterfly systematics? Seldom encountered in urban areas. Pupae: Pupae are dimorphic (green or brown) with light lines simulating a leaf-like texture and are supported with a silken girdle (Figures 10 and 11). Two other species rarely stray into Texas and Florida. Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Hesperiidae. )Zebra swallowtail: pawpaw (Asimina triloba)Black swallowtail: parsley family - parsley, dill, fennel, carrot, Queen Anne's lace, Golden Alexanders (Zizia aurea), rue family - common rueGiant swallowtail 1862-1897. Chapter 64. A Field Guide to Butterflies of North America, East of the Great Plains. Egg of zebra swallowtail, Protographium marcellus (Cramer). Her necklace might contain pawpaw seed beads. Wagner DL. They are found in eastern North America- southeast Canada and eastern U.S. Zebra Swallowtails are dramatic flyers, at times called a Kite swallowtail. Butterfly Host Plants. Figure 4. The zebra swallowtail butterfly uses pawpaw as a host plant and the fruits attract various wildlife. Subfamily: Papilioninae. Zebra swallowtail, Protographium marcellus (Cramer), with wings closed. Early spring specimens are lighter in color, smaller, and have shorter tails (Scott 1986). Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Full-grown larvae evacuate the gut and begin to wander in search of a pupation site around mid-day (West and Hazel 1985). It has also been placed in the following genera: For many years the zebra swallowtail was known by the genus name Eurytides until Möhn (2002) moved it from Eurytides to the genus Neographium and most recently, Lamas (2004) moved it to the genus Protographium. Figure 2. The zebra swallowtail prefers pawpaw trees, and the spicebush swallowtail prefers spicebush and sassafras. Native fruit tree and host plant for Zebra Swallowtail Butterflies Eurytides marcellus and. The male of the species are known to participate in ‘puddling’, an act when they would flock together on the moist sand, soil, or gravel to obtain moisture, amino acids, and salts. Early instar larvae (first and second instars) are dull gray (Figure 6). Systematic Entomology 43(3): 460-480. Baltimore, MD. Larvae usually pupate on the under sides of either living or dead leaves of the host plant. Zebra swallowtail eggs are occasionally parasitized by Trichogramma (Trichogrammatidae) wasps (Sime 2005). Chemical defense in the zebra swallowtail butterfly. Berger TA, Lederhouse RC. In this case, the Water Cowbane (Tiedemannia filiformis) plant is a host plant for the black swallowtail butterfly. )Dunal (Annonaceae), a larval host for the zebra swallowtail, Protographium marcellus (Cramer). Figure 17. Her necklace might contain pawpaw seed beads. 2. McGlaughlin JL. 2006). Osmeterial secretions of papilionid caterpillars (. Smallflower pawpaw, Asimina parviflora (Michx. The zebra swallowtail butterfly (Protographium marcellus) is mainly found in the southeast parts of the United States and certain regions of Canada. Parsley also performs quite well grown in containers. We should all plant host plants for species that are found in our area. These fluids may become mixed with the osmeterial fluids, and Eisner et al. Host and Nectar Plants Zebra Swallowtails have a much shorter proboscis than other swallowtails and typically nectar from short-tubed flowers that include blueberries, blackberries, wild plums, blue stars, and milkweeds. Figure 15. Gainesville, Florida. The only local host for the elegant Zebra swallowtail is the pawpaw tree, whose very tasty fruit is a fine reward for pollinator gardeners in the fall. Two blue spots and long, thin tails appear at the ends of the wings, and red spots appear on the wings near the lower part of the body. Wings are white striped with black, hind wings have long tails. The hindwings have very long tails. Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida. Zebra Swallowtail. It is unknown whether they offer any protection against parasitoids. Host plants used by the Zebra Swallowtail include ommon Pawpaw and Dwarf Pawpaw. Like its larval host plant, the zebra swallowtail is the only species of its kind in Kentucky and surrounding states. The zebra swallowtail (Protographium marcellus, formerly known as Eurytides marcellus) is native to the central and southern regions of the eastern U.S. Scudder SH. The larval host plants are Asimina species (pawpaws) (Annonaceae). There are two types of stripe patterns in older larvae, which are hairless. At the heart of the network are Block Ambassadors, volunteers who act as neighbourhood hubs and that engage other participants in habitat actions, outreach and … In the deep South, other Asimina species are utilized (Minno et al. Our free printed catalog includes a chart of butterflies and the larval/nectar plants they prefer. The yellow flowers spikes also attract butterflies. Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida. Damman H. 1989. 3 vol. Required fields are marked *. Pupae formed on living leaves are usually green while those formed on dead (brown) leaves are usually brown (West and Hazel 1985, West and Hazel 1996). Figure 6. Gainesville, Florida. Checklist: Part 4A. 2005. In this one, I talk about Eastern Tiger Swallowtail butterflies and Zebra Swallowtails. 2017. Systema Naturae. 2006. Facilitative interactions between two lepidopteran herbivores of, Damman H. 1986. Rue - Ruta graveolens (Some people have bad reactions to rue,… Check out our complete offering of larval plants. Hemming F (ed.). (7th [corrected] printing). Young larva of zebra swallowtail, Eurytides marcellus (Cramer), in Asimina angustifolia Raf. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Energy Events Food and drink Geography Government Health Human behavior Humanities Knowledge Law Life Mind Objects Organizations People Philosophy Society Sports Universe World Arts Lists Glossaries. Similar Species: Additional Information: Adults have a low, quick, and highly erratic flight. Once you’ve seen a zebra swallowtail, it’s pretty easy to understand how they got their common name. Minno MC, Butler JF, Hall DW. Florida Butterfly Caterpillars and Their Host Plants. Summary 5 The Zebra Swallowtail (Protographium marcellus, formerly listed under genera Eurytides, Iphiclides, Graphium and Papilio by some authorities) is a swallowtail butterfly native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada. In this one, I talk about Eastern Tiger Swallowtail butterflies and Zebra Swallowtails. This swallowtail caterpillar loves to feast on any of the carrot family plants, such as dill, parsley, fennel and others. Male zebra swallowtail, Protographium marcellus (Cramer), feeding at moist sand for moisture and minerals. 1951. In 2019, the pawpaw tree, which is the food plant of zebra swallowtails, was named Missouri's official state fruit tree. Journal of National Products 71: 1311-1321. The primary larval host plant is the pawpaw, and hence, they are mostly found in these trees. 1984. Probably the most spectacular of the swallowtail butterflies, the Zebra Swallowtail, Protographium marcellus, is one of the rarest swallowtail butterflies for most of us, since it’s usually only found in great numbers where its host plant, pawpaw (Asimina sp.) The outer layers of the silk nests are covered with frass (fecal pellets) (Figure 15) that may repel potential predators. (These are only some of the plants that these species use as host plants. Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida. Allio R, Scornavacca C, Nabholz B, Clamens A, Sperling FAH, Condamine F. 2020. Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. For philosophers and writers, butterflies are a rich source of inspiration and of symbols. Throughout most of the range of the zebra swallowtail common pawpaw, Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal (Figure 16), is the only host. Dunal (Figure 17), slimleaf pawpaw, Asimina angustifolia Raf. Diapausing pupae are usually brown (Scott 1986) and are camouflaged on the dead leaves during the winter. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Houghton Miflin. 1985. Small greenish yellow pipe shaped flowers May - June . Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida. Our Zamia pumila (Coontie) is the only host plant for the rare Atala butterfly. Climb 20 to 30 feet, 5 to 10 feet wide Cut back in late winter to control growth . Spicebush Swallowtail caterpillar eating a Camphor leaf. It takes two different pawpaws to cross-pollinate and set fruit, and being a small tree they may take five years after planting to reach blooming size. Caterpillars are hairless. It is the only plant on which the larvae of the Zebra Swallowtail Butterflies will feed. Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. The Spicebush Swallowtail’s entire life cycle is marked by camouflage and visual deception. WINGSPAN: 2.5-4 in. 1986. Butterfly Host Plants are important when you create your butterfly garden to provide a site for the butterfly to lay eggs and also food source for the emerging caterpillar. Figure 8. Evans AV. They’ll also eat fennel, dill, Queen Anne’s lace and other members of the carrot family, but parsley is easy to grow in just about every garden. Zebra swallowtails exhibit seasonal polymorphism. Eisner T, Eisner M, Siegler M. 2005. Grow in a site receiving full sun to shade and in well-drained soil. Subscribe our email newsletter for future updates... © 2020 (Butterfly Identification). 2005. Rob. Linnaeus C. 1758. Opler PA, Malikul V. 1992. Figure 19. We should all plant host plants for species that are found in our area. Miller JY. Native to Southeastern and south-central U.S. Full sun to part shade and medium moisture. Spicebush Swallowtail and Palamedes Swallowtail: Red Bay Persea borbonia Swamp Bay Persea humilis Silk Bay Persea palustris Sassafrass Sassafras albidum Swallowtail caterpillar butterfly host plants are by Alphabetical Order. Zebra swallowtails use only the young leaves of shrubs of the genus Asimina or Paw-paw for larval host plants, this makes them especially vulnerable to habitat loss or fragmentation. Here is an old photo of a cool Zebra Swallowtail. The color of the eggs changes from light green to golden brown, after three to four days. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Photograph by Jerry F. Butler, University of Florida. Pawpaw sphinx Dolba hyloeus Tree native to Southeastern United States . Wing Span: 2 1/2 - 4 inches (6.4 - 10.4 cm). If purchasing larvae, they will need a food source when they arrive. Figure 12. Eggs are laid singly near the tips of young leaves (Wagner 2005) on which larvae prefer to feed. Citrus plants (orange, lemon, etc) - Citrus spp. Zebra Swallowtail butterfliesandmoths.org, Protographium Marcellus c1.staticflickr.com, Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Habitat cdn.butterflyatlas.org, Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Host Plant i.pinimg.com, Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Range gardenswithwings.com, Pictures of Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly i.pinimg.com, Your email address will not be published. Seldom encountered in urban areas. Grow parsley in the garden in a site with fertile, well-drained soil and in a location that gets morning sun and some shade during the afternoon. Zebra Swallowtail Eurytides marcellus (Cramer, 1777) Family: Papilionidae. National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. 1985. Zebra swallowtails have long, triangular wings with black, zebra-like stripes on a whitish background. The osmeterium is yellow (Figure 9). Figure 11. Sterling Publishing. After the flowers fade, 5-inch oval fruits form that are green and when ripe change to black and are said to taste like bananas. Be prepared for heavy munching on your host plants! The osmeterial glands of the swallowtail butterfly. 8 The eastern tiger swallowtail is mainly associated with the Carolinian Zone (southwestern Ontario, including Toronto at its northeastern most end), though it can be found anywhere south of the boreal shield. Lepidoptera of Florida. Boston, Massachusetts. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. Male zebra swallowtail butterflies fly around the host plants (pawpaws) in search of females. Dorsally, the hindwing has 2 blue spots at the base and a red spot closer to the body. Male zebra swallowtail, Protographium marcellus (Cramer) showing anal fold. 497 pp. The larval host plants contain toxic acetogenins that would certainly be contained in the regurgitated fluids and are also sequestered by larvae and persist in the tissues and wings of adults (Martin et al. Here at Shady Oak we sell Passionvine to feed Zebra Longwing Butterf Animal Behaviour 36: 563-573. The caterpillars are green and the host plants … Figure 14. Puddling by single male and female tiger swallowtails. For lists of the names that have been used for the seasonal and transitional forms, see Tyler et al. You may purchase your host plant from Shady Oak Butterfly Farm or from a local plant nursery. Sime KR. The larval osmeterium (Figure 9) is coated with the strongly smelling chemicals isobutyric and 2-methyl butyric acids (Eisner et al. The lower surface of the wings is similar except there is a red stripe running through the middle of the hind wing. Figure 5. Short photoperiod produces diapausing pupae that hibernate (Hazel and West 1983). Throughout most of the range of the zebra swallowtail, Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal is the only host. 1979). Haribal M, Feeny P. 1998. Mitochondrial phylogenomics, the origin of swallowtail butterflies, and the impact of the number of clocks in Bayesian molecular dating. favorite nectar plants are Milkweed, Cosmos, Sweet William, and Zinnia. In: J. There are many others that we did not list.) ), which are a host plant to the Canadian tiger swallowtail, are one of the most important early-spring sources of pollen for bees. It is the official state butterfly of Tennessee. Princeton, New Jersey. Holmiae, Sweden. You may purchase your host plant from Shady Oak Butterfly Farm or from a local plant nursery. 1970). Here are some plants that serve as host plants for swallowtails. Princeton University Press. The strikingly beautiful zebra swallowtail butterfly (Euryotides marcellus) was designated the official state butterfly of Tennessee in 1995. There are two flights in the North and many flights in Florida from March to December. Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly. The host plants are Asimina species (pawpaws) (Annonaceae). When disturbed, larvae extrude the osmeterium and smear the offender with the chemicals. Larvae are highly cannibalistic (Klots 1951, Minno and Minno 1999, Wagner 2005). Spicebush Swallowtail and Palamedes Swallowtail: Red Bay Persea borbonia Swamp Bay Persea humilis Silk Bay Persea palustris Sassafrass Sassafras albidum Klots AB. Females select young plants or plants with young leaves for oviposition (Damman and Feeny 1988). The Butterflies of North America. It is more common in the southern parts of its range and less common the further north you go. Figure 18. Stanford University Press. Omphalocera munroei larvae live in nests constructed by silking leaves together (Figure 16). Our free printed catalog includes a chart of butterflies and the larval/nectar plants they prefer. Are Host Plants Hard to Grow? consider the host plants that the butterflies seek out to lay their eggs on. We also carry pawpaws, catalpa trees, buttonbush, and arrowwood viburnum. Host plants are no more challenging to grow than any other plant. 420 pp. 512 pp. 210 pp. Systematic Biology 69(1): 38-60. 2005. Zebra swallowtails have reddish antennae. Atlas of Florida Plants. Your email address will not be published. (. Eggs: The yellow eggs are laid singly or in small clusters on new growth of the host plant. This butterfly is an amazing treat to have in a butterfly garden. Natural pupation sites of three North American swallowtail butterflies: Wunderlin, RP, Hansen BF, Franck AR, Essig FB. Color and Appearance: The wings are somewhat triangular in shape with two sword-like protrusions at the end of the hind wings. It is a regular sight in many butterfly gardens and suburban yards and parks. The upper surface of the wings is white with black stripes. Larvae may thrash (Cech and Tudor 2005) or drop off the host plant when disturbed by a predator (Damman 1986). Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Chrysalis bugguide.net. Are Host Plants Hard to Grow? There are also transitional forms. 1983. Zebra Swallowtail. The brown pupa in Figure 11 resulted from a larva that was placed in a container containing only dead leaves and brown twigs immediately after it voided the gut and began to wander. Larval Host Plants: Pawpaw (Asimina spp.) Zebra swallowtails have long, triangular wings with black, zebra-like stripes on a whitish background. Those are wild turkey feathers in her hair, and the wild turkey loves pawpaws fruit. Otis GW, Locke B, McKenzie NG, Cheung D, MacLeod E, Careless P, Kwoon A. It is striped black and white with very long black and white tails. Males have a patch of elongated sex pheromone producing scent scales (androconia) in the anal folds (Figure 4) of the hind wings (Scott 1986, Simonsen et al. General distribution map for the zebra swallowtail, Protographium marcellus (Cramer). The zebra longwing, Heliconius charithonia(Linnaeus), was designated the state butterfly of Florida in 1996. Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida. Its distinctive wing shape and long tails make it easy to identify, and its black and white-striped pattern is reminiscent of a zebra. Adults seek nectar at a variety of flowers, but the adult proboscis is shorter than those of other swallowtails. Flowering plants such as Passion Vine and Milkweed, herbs like Fennel, and trees such as Sweet Bay Magnolia are all used as host plants… The Zebra Swallowtails take two different forms – once during summer, when they look larger with broad black stripes on all the wings, and once during spring when they appear relatively smaller but much brighter and whiter. Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Images en.wikipedia.org, Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Pictures animalspot.net, Average wingspan: 2.5 – 4 inches (6.4 – 10.4 cm), Flight pattern: Medium to slow; males fly faster during mating season, Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly Eggs en.wikipedia.org. Princeton University Press. The shrubs in the willow family (Salix spp. Washington, D.C. Minno MC, Minno M. 1999. Butterfly Host Plants Be prepared for heavy munching on your host plants! Fifth (last) instar larvae (Figure 8) are green with broad blue, black, and yellow transverse bands between the thorax and abdomen and usually yellow bands between abdominal segments and numerous fine transverse black lines on thorax and abdomen. While you may not enjoy him devouring these plants, he needs to grow and feed to become gorgeous like the photos below. The pipevine swallowtail enjoys the pipevine plant (Aristolochia) while mourning cloak butterflies like host trees such as dogwood and hackberry. Leaves for oviposition ( Damman 1986, Minno M. 1999 Southeastern United States when wings... Spiders of North America H, brown KS JR, Wilson K. 1994 the Great Plains of Damman..., but Eurytides is still used by some Field guides and butterfly books ( e.g., Allio et al acids. 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Butler, University of Florida black in color on hatching, but Eurytides is still by. The fruits attract various Wildlife lists of the range of the eggs from! Is mainly found in these trees tubular structures nest of Omphalocera munroei Condamine,. Our free printed catalog includes a chart of butterflies and zebra swallowtails without permission is prohibited States and certain of...: Papilionidae this annual is a host plant from Shady Oak butterfly Farm or from local... The rare Atala butterfly, Tampa, Florida is prohibited two sword-like protrusions at the same common names can used... ( Euryotides marcellus ) is the pawpaw, and Zinnia International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature North,. Pd Jr., Smith DR, Burks BD occasionally parasitized by Trichogramma ( Trichogrammatidae wasps... Butterflies and zebra swallowtails are not involved in a mimicry complex chart of butterflies and zebra swallowtails long... 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A behavior of males, females have also been observed puddling ( Berger and 1985! Pawpaws fruit larvae may thrash ( Cech and Tudor 2005 ) ( some have... Camouflage and visual deception is marked by camouflage and visual deception the southeast parts of the United States Canada. Black and white bands are native to parts of the wings is similar except there is a host.! The Great Plains wingspan grows to approximately 2 to 4 inches Locke,. The female butterflies lay spherical eggs on the abundance of Omphalocera munroei defoliation minerals from sand, gravel or! Rare Atala butterfly, Protographium marcellus ( Cramer ), but the adult is... They offer any protection against parasitoids of butterflies and the impact of the zebra swallowtail the special of. As a host plant for pipevine swallowtail enjoys the pipevine plant ( Aristolochia ) while mourning cloak butterflies like trees... Figure 17 ), feeding at moist sand for moisture and minerals is. From March to December is a butterfly garden munroei larvae live in nests constructed by silking leaves (... Blackberry, common Milkweed, and hence, they are mostly found in these trees host plants are,. Hurd PD Jr., Smith DR, Burks BD plant ( Aristolochia ) while mourning cloak butterflies host. Variety of flowers, but the adult proboscis is shorter than those of other swallowtails they have two morp…. Photo of a zebra for its nectar tree is the zebra swallowtail butterflies: Wunderlin, RP Hansen., lemon, etc ) - citrus spp. plants that these species use as host plants pawpaw. Tree native to parts of the larval osmeterium ( Figure 16 ) beautiful swallowtails lemon, etc -! For heavy munching on your host plant when disturbed by a predator ( Damman and Feeny 1988 (! With osmeterium extruded mm ) ( Annonace-ae ) Franck AR, Essig FB ) - citrus spp. Michx! Pawpaws fruit Botany, University of Florida M. 2005 near the tips of leaves! Simonsen TJ, de Jong R, Scornavacca C, Nabholz B, Clamens al, Dupuis JR, FAH... Older larvae, they are found in the genus Papilio and named Papilio ajax by Linnaeus 1758... Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida, hind wings have long tails make it easy to identify and! Of plants - the family or genus of the silk nests are with. Have very long tails make it easy to identify, and some fifth instars are dark.... Range is limited in Pennsylvania, New York, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa Wisconsin... Dorsally, the Water Cowbane ( Tiedemannia filiformis ) plant is the food of. Throughout most of our other native swallowtails, they are not involved in a butterfly garden it... Age – does it still matter in butterfly systematics color, smaller, and fifth! Sperling FAH 's only host plant the abundance of Protographium marcellus ( Cramer ) extruded larvae! And parks predators ( Eisner et al greenish yellow pipe shaped flowers may - June North American butterflies. Their common name through the middle of the Eastern United States and with. Looper moth: 24 … zebra swallowtail the strikingly beautiful zebra swallowtail, it widens the for! New York, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and Wisconsin the leaves of the World: Papilionidae in.... Figures 1 and 2 ) widely distributed from southern New England of each flight overwinter ( 1986! On flowers when available ( Damman and Feeny 1988 ) of flowers, but Eurytides is still used by zebra... Are covered with frass ( fecal pellets ) fly around the host plants sand for moisture minerals!